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BP 墨西哥湾漏油事件: 社会化媒体时代品牌危机公关的挑战和策略  

2010-06-23 12:34:34|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Social Media Crisis Management Lessons Learned from BP

BP fails to take advantage of social media source: www.treehugger.com/files/2010/05/bp-gulf-oil-...

社会化媒体(社交媒体 Social Media)不仅仅正在改变人们获取信息、沟通、行为的模式,而且改变了品牌和机构传播、公关、市场、CRM以及危机公关处理的生态。而BP的墨西哥湾漏 油事件为我们提供一个很好的案例,分析社会化媒体传播背景下当危机发生时企业和品牌如何应对社会化媒体的挑战?

限于Facebook 和 Twitter 在中国是受限资源。我们的分析更多借助国外独立博客和媒体采集的信息。下面是Andy Beal 关于BP石油失陷社会化媒体困境的原因分析。

BP网络危机的处理模式包括:

Updates(信息更新)
Response(回复)
Statement(声明)
Briefing(简报)
Broadcast(通知)
Distribution(发送,新闻稿发布)
Push(推送)

但是在分析了众多的数据之后,我们发现BP的危机处理中缺少了如下几个关键词:

Listening(倾听,监测和跟踪)
Engaging(互动和融合)
Discussing(参与讨论)
Conversation(参与对话)
Dialog(对话)
Understanding(理解)

无论BP是否使用了社会化媒体的手段或者SEO,BP对新媒体的认识和使用上存在着巨大的失误。如Andy Beal 的分析,其中一个最大的问题是BP没有充分去倾听消费者和网民的声音和诉求,同时在传播自己的观点的时候也没有去考虑受众的心理。

更为重要的是,BP的决策层和公关还不习惯和网络上的普通消费者打交道。BP的公关建议来自于一个传统的公关公司,这个公司可能没有网络conversation (对话)的经验,或者说他们的“亲民”策略并没有被BP采纳。

Andy Beal: If BP really wants to “use” social media to help fight the reputation backlash it’s facing, it needs to understand that the medium is a conversation. Right now, it’s using social media the same way it uses TV or Print. It’s only telling us its side of the story and not letting us talk back to BP executives. Who knows, maybe us “small people” might have the answer to cap that leaking pipe!


社会化媒体时代的危机公关

Allan Bisset在《BP – Beyond Pollution or Just Bad Crisis PR?》一文中说,危机公关有很多处理的方式和原则。但是其中最重要的一点是无论你是选择哪一种渠道或者传播方式,你的(spokesperson)发言 人和你的沟通应该是competent(胜任), confident(自信) and compassionate(有同情心的)。

当你沟通的方式和语言虽然严密但又复杂而费解,这非但不能澄清误解或者消除负面情绪,反而会引起反感、敌视,甚至会激化汹涌的负面言论。

BP也许没有想到包括Facebook和Twitter在内的社会化媒体将为BP的危机带来前所未有的挑战。在灾难、负面信息以及危机事件的传播 上,社会 化媒体比报纸、电视、包括论坛在内新媒体的传播速度、广度和力度都要迅速。而且不仅仅是信息的传播,还有每个社会化媒体使用者对新闻和信息本身观点、判断 的传播和累计。这个过程不是一个简单的叠加和重复,而是一个几何形式增强和进化。

一个证明就是,在危机发生后的数天内,Facebook 上抵制BP群组的快速增长,Twitter账户@HPGlobalPR短时间内11多万的粉丝,以及由此掀起的抵制BP浪潮。

Twitter can also be used as a communications channel

社会化媒体时代的危机公关已经完全跨越了传统媒体和传统危机处理的范围。Allan Bisset 说: So Crisis PR has to take increasing account of Social Media and the Internet in future, both as a potentially hazardous communications channel to monitor for sentiment but also as a cost-effective and efficient means of getting your side of the story across – provided you’ve got a coherent story to tell and trained, competent spokespeople to tell it in the first place of course!

The most important element of any  communications strategy in a crisis, especially as it begins to develop,  is to be open with the public by being available to the all the possible  news and information channels.   In a crisis, the “truth” is often the media’s and the online social communities’ perception of what “the truth”  is.   So never let the facts get in the way of a good story and pay attention not to what the position actually is, but what’s being said in the first few hours

那么对于那些习惯于用“暂时不做评论”或者“我们将会第一时间告知媒体和大众”的传统危机处理策略,将不再适用于社会化媒体时代的危机处理和危机公关。

在传统的公关策略中,危机公关的解读不仅仅包括危(Danger)还包括机(Opportunity)。 但是 社会化媒体时代的危机,让Danger 来得更快更强,同时在危机中需找机会(Opportunity)的难度也在不断增强。

http://www.misterhobbes.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/danger_opportunity_crisis_mandarin_word_meaning_chinese.jpg


Social media as a crisis management tool 社会化媒体时代的危机处理

((from  Incorporate Social Media into Your Crisis Management Plan by Aneta Hall http://anetahall.wordpress.com/2009/05/10/incorporate-social-media-into-your-crisis-management-plan/ )

Before the crisis危机前

In order to prepare for a crisis you must add the following social media components to your existing crisis communication plan well BEFORE the crisis unfolds

Social media staff. 人员储备。

  • A group of social media enthusiasts who continuously engage with influencers across your industry and who maintain visibility across all social media channels where conversations about your brand take place.
  • This should be a distributed practice, rather than one- or two-people team coming from your PR group. All this to help your company develop social media relevant relationships on every operational front.
  • Your engineers, your customer service reps, your legal team should be engaged with relevant communities: engineering, customer support, etc. in order to activate these relationships in the time of crisis and help you carry your message across all operational disciplines.
  • You don’t have to go to extremes (the way Dell, IBM or Oracle do) and make social media interaction one of the job functions of virtually every employee unless you have strong controls in place and highly trained workforce in terms of dos and don’ts of social media engagement. But don’t think that Milennials in your company are already engaged and making social media connections for you and you don’t need to get involved further. Develop a formal plan that includes specific reps from all business units and corporate functions and make social media outreach part of their job responsibilities to ensure you have these valuable social media connections in time of crisis.

Social media channel monitoring. 监测

  • One of the big advantages of being socially connected is gathering real-time intelligence. If you’re tracking social media channels – even by using basic free tools like Google alerts–you’re likely to discover a problem in early stages giving you a bit more time to gather as much intelligence as possible and to formulate your response strategy.
  • Find out who is responsible for that in your company, what reports are generated and how you can participate in this process. Finally you want to know the formal process of activating your crisis response team once you spot a problem. This process should be well publicized in your company so that every employee who discovers a potential problem knows what to do and who to alert.


Rapid response team. 快速反应团队

  • If you have a crisis management plan in place it surely includes a rapid response team set up to manage response and make decisions which includes a communications expert responsible for gathering, framing and distributing information, a senior executive who is able to make decisions in real time and is accountable for them and additional reps from legal, HR and marketing teams.
  • Please make sure that this team includes a member of or has close coordination with your social media outreach and monitoring team to make sure social media channels are closely monitored in the time of crisis and used along with traditional channels to get crisis information out quickly and efficiently.


Social media channels.
社会化媒体渠道

http://darmano.typepad.com/.a/6a00d8341bfa9853ef0133ec7118a8970b-500wi

  • The time of crisis is NOT the best time to worry about opening a twitter account, starting a corporate blog or setting up a YouTube channel. The time to establish these channels is BEFORE the crisis occurs. Why?

First, because they require a fair amount of logistical forethought including identifying channel maintenance procedures . During crisis you don’t have time to worry about best practices associated with channel set up and maintenance. You need your channel to be ready to receive content and have a team in place ready to engage in two-way dialog.

Secondly, you need some time for your channel to mature and attract followship in order to be most effective in the time of crisis. Having said that there are plenty of companies including Domino’s who ended up opening a social media channel during the crisis simply because they did not think of it before.

Better late than never, but remember to “advertise” your new social media channels as much as possible using your traditional media channels (add a blog link to your press release, provide link to your Twitter account on the home page of your corporate website, etc.). All this to make sure users are aware of these new communication and engagement channels.

During the Crisis危机中

DEFINE AND DISCOVER CRISIS EARLY.监测和评估

If you’re monitoring social media, and you suspect a crisis is emerging that you don’t already know about, take a deep breath and definitely don’t panic. You have (hopefully) prepared for this day making it easier to manage what’s to come. Begin by gathering as much information as possible before launching your rapid response team. Chris Kenton suggests initially gathering info. to answering the following two questions:

  • What the source and content of the crisis? Is it a customer complaint on a blog or a post by an influential analyst getting picked up on Twitter? Is it an opinion: someone hates your company, or a fact: your product blew up and hurt someone? You don’t want to go into crisis mode on every customer complaint that can be managed by engagement, but be able to recognize major crisis quickly.
  • What’s the severity of the crisis? Is it one person shouting out to the universe, a percolating dialog, or a raging fire?

Consider asking the source of the post for more information if the story is unclear.
However, don’t try to dismiss or hide the crisis situation. Remember that transparency is the most effective tool for crisis management. Don’t shut up or shout out but participate and make meaningful connections.

FORMULATE YOUR MESSAGE CAREFULLY. 关键信息

Present timely, accurate and candid info. Holtz & Havens in their “Tactical Transparency” book advise that your message should include:

  • Honest and authentic explanation of what happened while maintaining positive image of the organization
  • Explanation of steps taken to address the issue
  • Plans to prevent this situation from happening again

Remember that the way the message is worded really makes a difference. While Twitter message has to be succinct (only 140 characters) and could include a link to more detailed info, your blog post can elaborate and invite your constituents to submit comments while your user forum can invite public to more freely discuss the issues.

None of these channels include blatantly copying and pasting portions of your press release which has been put together to appeal to a one type of audience and not to everybody. Don’t forget about common sense issues such as avoiding industry jargon, explaining acronyms, removing any legalese or marketing spin from your crisis communication messaging.

DELIVER YOUR MESSAGE (DON’T FORGET SOCIAL MEDIA CHANNELS) 传递信息

  • Once your message has been formulated remember to update it once more information becomes available. But remember to stick to the facts in a crisis and never speculate on the causes or resolution of a crisis unless you have all the facts. Stick to what is known regardless how much pressure you are under from traditional or new media folks.
  • Deliver your message across all channels (traditional and new) while paying attention to the ones where conversations about the crisis are particularly lively. Remember now is not a good time to create social channels. This should have been done ahead of time.
  • Make sure that there is an up-to-date web site/blog entry with all pertinent information regarding the crisis easily accessible to everybody. That website needs to be kept up to date 24/7. It’s best if there is a link to it from your website’s home page.


Severity of Crisis 危机的分类

Depending on the severity of the crisis respond appropriately. Chris Kenton suggests separating these crisis into the following types and responding accordingly:

SMALL PROBLEMS NEED TO BE ADDRESSED BEFORE THEY BECOME BIG PROBLEMS.
急需解决的问题,否则将演变成为危机。这包括消费者在博客和其他社会化媒体上的关于产品的投诉、不愉快的消费经历。
Customer complaints on blogs can often be solved by engaging early. The crisis and the resulting online buzz can often be stopped by expediting a connection with customer service. If it’s a problem you can’t solve–an opinion, or a bad experience that can’t be resolved–a note of regret can often have a defusing impact. In the heat of a crisis it is easy to admit wrong-doing or discuss internal problem on a public forum. Don’t do that since you may unleash unintended consequences you’ll regret.

AN ISOLATED CUSTOMER PROBLEM IS GAINING TRACTION ONLINE.
正在引发网络关注的单一、热点事件。
Consider telling the company’s side of the story to defuse a crisis. Remember to proceed with caution and give yourself time to formulate the message. Sprint handled a classic customer service issue that resulted from red tape and miscommunication within 24 hours by submitting a comment to a blog post about the issue by simply explaining their side of the story, offering to help and NOT asking to remove the damaging post (more here)

THE CRISIS IS IN FULL SWING AND INVOLVES MULTIPLE CHANNELS.
已经演变为危机的事件,并开始在网络的各个渠道传播。
Admit it, it’s close to impossible to address every blog post and every Twitter post, but this is where your crisis communication planning really shines. Activate your entire social media team and ask them to activate their social media contacts to spread the message across virally. While you alone cannot carry your response to everybody, brand ambassadors can and will. Among those who discuss your brand in connection with the crisis find the ones who are the most influential (through Technorati ranking for blogs or Twittelizer for Twitter influence measuring). Reach to these folks first since their messaging carries a greater impact.

INTERNAL CRISIS THAT HAS NOT YET GONE PUBLIC.
没有被公开的内部危机。
Consider yourself lucky. You have time to think about your response ahead of time. But don’t procrastinate thinking the issue will go away without hitting the social media channels. Chances of that happening are close to zero if you are a large brand. Your first step should include a traditional pre-emptive disclosure, that should be set and ready to go live when time comes. Don’t activate your social media channels yet, but do it as soon as the buzz starts.

Crisis Management &Engagement Roadmap 危机处理流程(略)
相关参考:How to Use Social Media for Crisis Management http://www.socialmediaexaminer.com/how-to-use-social-media-for-crisis-management/

Additional Resources:

Golden Rules of Crisis PR 危机公关的处理原则


1.  Have a detailed crisis communications plan that includes dealing with the media, online communities, the immediate local (or global) community and your employees.


2. Make sure the crisis team has been professionally trained in doing hard news interviews and consider establishing a dedicated team or getting a specialist agency on board to deal solely with the online aspects of your communications.


3. Nominate a spokesperson and two back-ups now – be culturally sensitive about the choice.  Do not wait for the crisis to occur.


4. Deal with the crisis head-on. Don’t put your corporate head in the sand under the “no comment” cover.


5. Respond to reporters’ questions immediately. They expect a return call or an on-site interview within ten minutes of the request.  Respond equally quickly to comments online and in Social Media networks.


6. Never lie. Telling the big lie would obviously  be stupid,  but many executives think little white lies will ameliorate things a bit.  No – it will just come back and bite you very hard on the bum.


7. Never go off the record. In a crisis there is already enough confusion – no need for you to add to it.  Keep to the agreed text and approach and issue, distribute or otherwise disseminate only that information you’d be happy seeing on the front page of the local paper or anywhere in the public domain.


9. Practice implementing your crisis plan by going through a mock crisis once a year. Do not forget the Social Media element during the practice.

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